The population of this district is mainly rural. The villages vary considerably in size as well as in population. Starting from the year 1949, a large displaced population from erstwhile East Pakistan had settled in bordering thanas namely, Bamongola, Habibpur, Malda and kaliachak. The "Barind" areas are inhabitant mostly by a huge Santal population. In those areas which have considerable population of weavers of silkrearers of silk- reelers the village tend to become small townships of which Kaliachak, Sujapur, Peasbari, Manickchak, Ratua, Chanchal, Harischandrepur etc.may be cited as examples. In the "Barind" areas where the ground is high and agriculture is the sole occupation, the tendency for the people is to remain in small hamlets.
The language of the majority of the people is Bengali. But a certain percentage of the population in the West and North is of Behari origin, and most of them speak Hindi or Khotta, which is a mixture of Hindi and Bengali. This class, though largely retained their own languages, are gradually acquiring Bengali. In the region of Araidanga, Milki, Noghoria, Atgama, Amrity and Mirjadpur there are settlement of domicile Maithili Brahmins who speaks Maithili.
Among the scheduled castes population ,there are 59 sub-communities of which Rajbanshi, Namasudre, Polia, Tiyer, Keet and Poundra are the main sub-castes. Among the tribal population there are 38 sub-communities of which Santala, Oraon, Mores, Mundas and Malpaharias are main sub-communities. About 88% of the tribal population are concentrated in the "Barind" areas comprised in four blocks namely, Gazole, Bamongola, Habibpur and Old Malda. Since the tribal population of this district is quite high, it goes without saying that the development of the district depends on the development of the tribals. The scheduled tribes and scheduled castes people of this district are very much backward economically as well as educationally.